Formatting literature and references


In-text references and the reference list at the end of the paper should be prepared according to the Council of Science Editors (CSE) documentation Name-Year (N-Y) system

In-text references should be cited in the form of the author’s last name and publication year in parentheses, e.g. (Anderson 2017). A paper with two authors should be cited in parentheses: (Nowak and Smith 2017). When there are more than two authors, the first author’s name should be followed by et al. While authors and year do not identify references, a, b should be used after the year (Nowak et al. 2002a; 2002b). When multiple works by different authors are cited, they should be put in chronological order from oldest to most recent (and alphabetically, if published in the same year). Separate studies by a semicolon: (Nowak et al. 2008; Smith et al. 2016). When the author’s name is mentioned in the sentence, the name may be omitted from the parentheses to avoid redundancy, using only the date. The date (in parentheses) should follow directly after a mention of the author’s name.

The cited literature should be entered separately as the final pages of the manuscript, listing the items in alphabetical order. The number of cited items cannot exceed one hundred. The list should include the ordinal number, author’s name, first letters of names, surnames of co-authors and first letters of their names (in the order given in the cited work), the full title of the cited work, shortened journal title, volume, page numbers and year of publication (in brackets). A list of used journal names and abbreviations can be found in Web of Science: standard journal abbreviation used online databases. If the full name of the periodical is used, please insert the comma after the name [1] and the dot after each shortened word of the journal name [2].

  1. Adams G.M., Blumenthal R.M.: Gene pvuIIW: a possible modulator of PvuII endonuclease subunit association. Gene, 157, 193–199 (1999)
  2. Beld J., Woycechowsky K.J., Hilvert D.: Diselenides as universal oxidative folding catalysts of diverse proteins. Biotechnol. 150, 481–489 (2010)

If the number of co-authors of the work exceeds 10 (the publication quoted below is the work of 42 authors), please provide the names and initials of the first and last co-author separated by &, and then add et al., e.g.:

  1. Tomb J.F. & Venter J.C. et al.: The complete genome sequence of the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori. Nature, 338, 539–543 (1997)

Citing works from journals published only online should contain next to authors, and title details shortened title of the journal, volume, page (or its equivalent [1]), and year of publication (in brackets). If the Publisher does not use page numbering [2], please enter journal page with the DOI number.

  1. Esberg A., Muller L.A., McCusker J.H.: Genomic structure of and genome-wide recombination in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288C progenitor isolate EM93. PLoS One, 6, e25211 (2011)
  2. Stachowiak R., Łyżniak M., Budziszewska B.K., Roeske K., Bielecki J., Hoser G., Kawiak J.: Cytotoxicity of bacterial metabolic products, including Listeriolysin O, on leukocyte targets. Biomed. Biotechnol.

For citing non-periodicals next to authors and title details – the publishing house, the place, and the year of publication should be given [1]. When referring to an article in a collective work, e.g., a chapter in a book [2], the title of this work should also be given and the name of its editor, publishing house, place of publication, year, volume and finally, page numbers.

  1. Boulton R.B., Singleton V.L, Bisson L.F., Kunkee R.E.: Principles and practices of winemaking. Chapman Hall, New York, 1996
  2. Portnoy D.A., Sun A.N., Bielecki J.E.: Escape from the phagosome and cell-to-cell spread of Listeria monocytogenes (in) Microbial Adhesion and Invasion, Ed. M. Hook, L. Świtalski, Springer, New York, 1992, p. 85–94

Websites citations

Citing the websites of the public organization should contain: authors (if known [1]) or the name of the organization [2] (Publisher of the page), the title of the article, page name (if not already provided), date of publication (if provided [3]), www address, date of last address access

  1. (06.03.2014)

World Health Organization: What we know about transmission of the Ebola virus among humans. Ebola situation assessment, 06.10.2014,

  1. (27.01.2023)

The instructions in the CSE documentation system NY should be followed for all other cases not covered here.