All posts by Anna Białecka

GONOCOCCI – PATHOGENS OF GROWING IMPORTANCE. PART 1. CURRENT DATA ON DIAGNOSTICS, GENOTYPING AND THERAPY.


Joanna Białecka, Katarzyna Rak and Aneta Kiecka

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Abstract: Neisseria gonorrhoeae is an aetiological agent of gonorrhoea, which is a sexually transmitted disease (STD), a public health challenge worldwide. Gonorrhoea is undoubtedly a serious health risk, especially for women, due to its often asymptomatic course and the possibility of upper genital tract complications such as pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), which can result in infertility. The data show that the diagnostic method for N. gonorrhoeae should be specific, simple, sensitive, rapid and inexpensive. Currently, phenotypic identification methods have been dominated by NAAT methods, which allow detection and identification of gonococcus directly in the clinical specimen. However, up today molecular methods do not allow full determination of drug susceptibility.

PATHOGENIC FEATURES OF PORPHYROMONAS GINGIVALIS INFLUENCE PROGRESSION OF RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS


Wiktoria Krakowiak, Halina Lisowska and Wiesław Kaca

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Abstract: Autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), are examples of yet not entirely understood etiology. They are linked to immune system dysfunction, which becomes immunologically overactive, damaging the body’s tissues and organs. At least three major factors underlie the development of autoimmune disorders: environmental factors, including the oral and intestinal microbiomes, genetic predisposition, and aberrant autoimmune response. The dysbiosis of the oral microbiota, in particular, exerts a significant effect on RA, clinically manifested by damage of the joints. RA is significantly associated with periodontitis, which is caused by an increased abundance of Porphyromonas gingivalis in the subgingival niche, which disturbs the homeostasis of the oral microbial community. P. gingivalis is considered to contribute to the development and progression of RA. Although this bacterium may escape detection by the host immune system, it still induces an immune imbalance. RA and periodontitis also share similar pathological and clinical features. The progression of both chronic periodontitis and RA is linked to the dysregulation of the immune system and the damage caused by the immune response. Previous detailed studies have indicated that a specific enzyme of P. gingivalis, peptidyl-arginine deiminase, which catalyzes the citrullination of proteins, may trigger the autoimmune response resulting in the development of RA.

FUNGAL PATHOGEN IN DIGITAL AGE: REVIEW ON CURRENT STATE AND TREND OF COMPARATIVE GENOMICS STUDIES OF PATHOGENIC FUNGI


Kenneth L.S. Tan and Saharuddin B. Mohamad

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Abstract: Fungal pathogenicity to plants, animals, and humans leads to several detrimental effects in our society by causing diseases that impact livelihood and food security. While the recent pandemic shifted focus to viral pathogens, fungal pathogens are still impacting the world that we live in. It is important to study fungal pathogenicity with the latest scientific advancement. One way to do that is to understand the conservation of pathogenicity in the fungus kingdom which will further elucidate the underlying mechanisms behind fungal pathogenicity across all species of fungi. This review provides an outlook on the various bioinformatics and genomics approaches and currently available resources in understanding fungal pathogenicity. It also discusses the current state of affairs and emerging trends in the study of fungal pathogenicity. Finally, this review also provide suggestions different approaches for the study of fungal pathogenicity to see further improve our understanding in this field.

THE ROLE OF GUT MICROBIOTA IN OBESITY


Anna Celina Durma, Adam Daniel Durma, Adam Śmiałowski and Leszek Czupryniak

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Abstract: Obesity is a disease which is currently one of the most serious problems affecting approximately 650 million people worldwide. Improper lifestyle is considered the primary cause of the disease; however, many other factors contribute to the problem. In recent years, attention has been drawn to the role of gut microbiota in developing and controlling obesity and overweight. Microorganisms in the gastrointestinal tract are responsible for the fermentation of certain nutrients, causing efficient digestion, stimulation of intestinal transit, vitamin production, and modulation of the host’s immune system. Numerous studies have demonstrated that gut microbiota composition differs between obese individuals and those with a normal body mass index (BMI). It has also been shown that altering gut microbiota can influence the phenotype of the host organism, promoting metabolic changes, including BMI reduction. Recent studies aimed at using probiotics to modify gut microbiota composition to reduce body weight are still inconclusive.

INWAZYJNA LISTERIOZA W EUROPIE – PRZEGLĄD PRZYPADKÓW

INVASIVE LISTERIOSIS IN EUROPE – A CASE REVIEW
Anna Żurawik, Paulina Szczesiul-Paszkiewicz and Agnieszka Chmielarczyk

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Abstract: Listeria monocytogenes bacilli are a known cause of non-invasive gastrointestinal listeriosis with diarrhea, less frequently they cause invasive infections: meningitis and encephalitis, bacteremia and its complications: endocarditis, intraocular inflammation of the eye and others. The risk of human infection is mainly associated with consuming food contaminated with these bacteria. According to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), infections with L. monocytogenes etiology caused the highest hospitalizations and deaths among zoonotic diseases reported in 2022. A report by the European Center for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) reported 0.44 cases of listeriosis per 100,000 population in 2021, with the highest incidence rate for people over 64 years old at 1.7.
The study aimed to review and describe cases of invasive listeriosis diagnosed in adult patients in Europe between 2010 and 2023. Fifty-two cases of the disease were included, of which 19 were meningitis, 13 showed bacteremia, nine were associated with endocarditis and 10 with intraocular inflammation. One case had a clinical form of hepatitis. Only seven cases of L. monocytogenes infection were related to consuming contaminated food. Eleven cases ended in the death of patients.
Invasive listeriosis is a difficult-to-treat infection with a significant mortality rate. It requires decisive action by monitoring the prevalence and extent of food contamination with these microorganisms and preventing epidemic outbreaks. Research on listeriosis should focus on improving the clinical treatment of severe cases of infection and studying the complex mechanisms of their pathogenesis.