Abstract: Coxsackieviruses (CV), as all enteroviruses, are small, non-enveloped, icosahedral-shaped capsid viruses. They belong to the family Picornaviridae. This group was named after the town of Coxsackie in New York State (USA) where was recognized the first human case of coxsackievirus infection in the 40s of the XX century. Coxsackie B (CVB) are distinguished from other enteroviruses by ability to infect many types of tissues and organs. This wide tropism reason that these viruses are etiologic agents of large number of different diseases. CVB cause infection of the heart, pleura, pancreas, lungs and liver, causing myocarditis, pleurodynia, pericarditis, pneumonia and hepatitis. They can invade the central nervous system and induce meningitis, encephalitis, or acute flaccid paralysis. They also cause systemic neonatal disease and chronic infections such as type 1 diabetes and chronic myocarditis. This pantropic character of CVB can be determinate by specific virus – receptor interaction, which initiate the infection and viral spread. CVB attach at least two receptor proteins: the coxsackievirus – adenovirus receptor (CAR) and the decay – accelerating factor (DAF). Moreover, other anonymous determinant may play a role in tissue permissiveness and disease severity. This article summarizes the main aspects of Coxsackieviruses B infection: replica-tion, virus-receptor interaction, genetic variability, pathogenesis, epidemiology and diagnostics.
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Abstract: Candida auris is a new fungal pathogen whose clinical significance has dramatically increased within recent years. Major issues related to this species include its rapid global spread and high epidemic potential, resilience and persistence in the hospital environment favoured by its resistance against certain disinfectants, horizontal transmission; possibility of persistent colonization, challenging labora-tory identification based on conventional biochemical methods, multidrug resistance as well as the need for implementation of restrictive and expensive prevention and control measures. This review raises the above mentioned issues and compiles recent findings regarding this microorganism.
Abstract: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is found in most Gram-negative bacteria and induces innate responses by binding to toll-like recep-tor 4 (TLR4). LPS isolated from Pantoea agglomerans species is an interesting issue. On the one hand, it is a risk factor for diseases such as wounds, abscess, bacteremia, pneumonia, urinary tract infections, septic arthritis, osteomyelitis and peritonitis. On the other, its health-promoting properties in atherosclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease, and osteoporosis are increasingly observed. Studies in humans and animal models show that LPS from P. agglomerans may have beneficial effects in the treatment of certain diseases. A huge challenge today is the prevention and treatment of skin diseases, including atopic dermatitis (AD), allergic contact dermatitis (ACD), and hard-to-heal wounds. Reports show that LPS from P. agglomerans may be useful in the treatment of skin diseases through its effects on the immune response. Studies show that LPS acts on Langerhans cells and leads to suppression of the allergic response.
Abstract: In order to meet the growing needs of the world economy for biotechnology, culture collections must transform the way they operate from passive storage of microbial resources to active microbial resource centers whose services should go beyond the provision of microbes. The protection and conscious use of microorganisms aims to co-create a strategy for responsible and sustainable develop-ment, based on expert knowledge. This article deals with the subject of the recently developed panel of biobank-specific standards and the requirements that must be met by culture collections to transform into modern microbial biobanks.