Browsing tag: biosynteza

Yarrowia lipolytica – niekonwencjonalne drożdże w biotechnologii

Yarrowia lipolytica – non-conventional yeast in biotechnology
J. Krzyczkowska, A. Urszula Fabiszewska

1. Wprowadzenie. 2. Taksonomia i bioróżnorodność gatunku Yarrowia lipolytica. 3. Morfologia i fizjologia drożdży Yarrowia lipolytica. 4. Charakterystyka genetyczna Yarrowia lipolytica. 5. Biotechnologiczne znaczenie drożdży Yarrowia lipolytica. 5.1. Rola drożdży Yarrowia lipolytica w biotechnologii żywności. 5.2. Yarrowia lipolytica w ochronie środowiska. 5.3. Synteza białek enzymatycznych przez drożdże Yarrowia lipolytica. 6. Podsumowanie

Abstract: Yarrowia lipolytica is one of the most extensively studied “non-conventional” yeast. It is considered as nonpathogenic and several processes based on this organism were generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA, USA). Numerous unique physiological as well as biochemical properties exhibited by these microorganisms allow their wide use in biotechnology of food. High secretory capacity contributes to the production of a number of important metabolites, including organic acids, polyalcohols, carotenoids, aroma compounds, single cell oil or microbial surfactants. The sequenced genome and fairly well studied metabolism of this yeast species allows also for its usage as a model in numerous basic research in the field, including secretory protein, biogenesis of peroxisomes or lipid homeostasis. In this review, we have summarizedthe potential applications of the yeast Y. lipolytica, including the commercialization of some processes. The article provides also a synthetic description of the systematics, morphology and physiology of the species.

1. Introduction. 2. Taxonomy and biodiversity of species of Yarrowia lipolytica. 3. The morphology and physiology of the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica. 4. Genetic characteristics of Yarrowia lipolytica. 5. Biotechnological importance of yeast Yarrowia lipolytica. 5.1. The role of the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica in the biotechnology of food. 5.2. Yarrowia lipolytica in environmental protection. 5.3. Synthesis of enzymes by yeast Yarrowia lipolytica. 6. Summary

Compartmentalization in cephalosporin C biosynthesis by industrial strains Acremonium chrysogenum

Ultrastrukturalna organizacja komórek grzybni Acremonium chrysogenum podczas produkcji cefalosporyny C na skalę przemysłową
W. Kurzątkowski, A. Gębska-Kuczerowska

1. Introduction. 2. The pathway of cephalosporin C biosynthesis. 3. Secondary metabolism of cephalosporin C. 4. Cellular localization of enzymes involved in cephalosporin C biosynthesis (compartmentalization). 5. Role of peroxisomes in cephalosporin C biosynthesis. 6. Industrial strain improvement. 7. β-lactams in the treatment of various bacterial infections – mode of action. 8. Conclusions

Abstract: Cephalosporin C biosynthesis is a compartmentalized process located mainly in the sub-apical, productive, non-growing cells of the hyphae, which under the conditions of the industrial technology build well-dispersed flocculent mycelia. In this paper, the cephalosporin C production by industrial strains of Acremonium chrysogenum (syn. Cephalosporium acremonium) is described, including the central role of peroxisomes in the biosynthesis and secretion of this antibiotic and other β-lactams. The localization of the pathway of cephalosporin C biosynthesis and important transport steps of intermediates and the end-products are also discussed.

1. Wprowadzenie. 2 Szlak biosyntezy cefalosporyny C. 3. Wtórny metabolizm cefalosporyny C. 4. Lokalizacja enzymów biosyntezy cefalosporyny C w komórkach producenta. 5. Rola peroksysomów w biosyntezie cefalosporyny C. 6. Zwiększanie wydajności szczepów przemysłowych. 7. Rola antybiotykow β-laktamowych w lecznictwie – mechanizm działania antybiotyków β-laktamowych. 8. Wnioski

Streszczenie: W niniejszej pracy omówiono rolę peroksysomów w wytwarzaniu cefalosporyny C przez przemysłowe szczepy A. chrysogenum. Przedstawiono lokalizację enzymów szlaku biosyntezy cefalosporyny C w dojrzałych metabolicznie aktywnych nierosnących komórkach grzybni. Omówiono także niektóre aspekty zwiększania wydajności szczepów przemysłowych.