Browsing tag: plazmid

Koncepcja chromidu i jej znaczenie dla klasyfikacji pozachromosomowych replikonów bakterii

The concept of chromid and its influence on the classification of bacterial extrachromosomal replicons
J. Czarnecki, D. Bartosik

1. Wprowadzenie. 2. Nazewnictwo replikonów niezbędnych. 3. Koncepcja chromidu. 4. Identyfikacja i klasyfikacja chromidów. 5. Chromidy w genomach bakterii. 6. Ewolucyjne korzyści wynikające z obecności chromidów. 7. Podsumowanie

Abstract: Extrachromosomal replicons are common components of bacterial genomes. While the genetic information essential for growth and division of bacterial cells is located within the chromosome, the extrachromosomal replicons, usually classified as plasmids, can provide functions which are critical for the survival of a bacterium in a specific environment; however, they are not indispensable for the viability of the host cells. Comparative genomic studies revealed that in many bacterial genomes some chromosomal genes had been transferred into the co-occurring plasmids. This phenomenon has led to the generation of essential extrachromosomal replicons, called chromids, sharing features of both chromosomes and plasmids. The prevalence of chromids in bacteria and their conserved character within certain taxonomic groups suggest an important role for these replicons in the evolution of bacteria.

1. Introduction. 2. Nomenclature of essential replicons. 3. The concept of chromid. 4. Identification and classification of chromids. 5. Chromids in bacterial genomes. 6. Evolutionary significance of chromids. 7. Summary

Integrony bakterii Gram-dodatnich

Integrons in Gram-positive bacteria
B. Łabiszak, R. Koczura

1. Wprowadzenie. 2. Charakterystyka integronów. 3. Integrony bakterii Gram-dodatnich. 3.1. Integrony Corynebacterium spp. 3.2. Integrony Enterococcus spp. 3.3. Integrony Staphylococcus spp. 3.4. Integrony Streptococcus spp. 3.5. Integrony innych gatunków bakterii Gram-dodatnich. 4. Podsumowanie

Abstract: Integrons are genetic platforms responsible for integration, rearrangement and expression of resistance determinants called gene cassettes. Most of the reports on the occurrence, characteristics and evolution of integrons concern Gram-negative bacteria, whereas relatively little is known on the distribution and role of integrons in Gram-positive microorganisms. The aim of this review is to summarize the information about the occurrence of integrons in Gram-positive bacteria and their role in the spread of antimicrobial resistance.

1. Introduction. 2. Integron characteristics. 3. Integrons in Gram-positive bacteria. 3.1. Integrons in Corynebacterium spp. 3.2. Integrons in Enterococcus spp. 3.3. Integrons in Staphylococcus spp. 3.4. Integrons in Streptococcus spp. 3.5. Integrons in other Gram-positive species. 4. Summary