Agnieszka E. Laudy and Stefan Tyski


Abstract: Transplantology is a branch of medicine that is developing rapidly. Transplanted whole organs or segments of organs may be recovered from either living or deceased donors. New methods of preserving transplanted solid organs, including the kidney, liver, heart, lung, and pancreas, as well as tissues, such as the cornea and skin, are being developed. Preservation fluid, which is used to perfuse and store the donated organ or tissue, should reduce biological deterioration of organs and tissue, attenuate ischemia/reperfusion-induced cell/tissue injury, and protect against damage. Lowering the storage temperature of organs significantly reduces the risk of damage. Efforts are also made to shorten the time between collecting the organ or tissue from the donor and transplanting it in the recipient. However, during transplantation, the recipient may become infected, primarily with bacteria and fungi. Infections of organ recipients occur most often due to unhygienic organ collection, improper handling and transport, and inappropriate preservation conditions, especially contamination of preservation fluid. The literature on contamination of organ preservation fluid and infections in graft recipients is very diverse, both in terms of the isolated bacterial and fungal species and the number of incidents. A large percentage of contaminating microorganisms belong to the generally non-pathogenic skin microbiota, but there are also cases of multidrug-resistant bacteria. Besides, the transplanted organs themselves may pose a danger. They may contain latent microorganisms, mainly viruses and parasites, that could be activated in a patient who has been subjected to immunosuppression to reduce the risk of organ rejection.