Molekularne podstawy bakteryjnej oporności na ampicylinę

Molecular basis of bacterial resistance to ampicillin
K. Bondarczuk, S. Sułowicz, Z. Piotrowska-Seget

1. Wstęp. 2. Mechanizm działania ampicyliny. 3. Inaktywacja ampicyliny przez β-laktamazy. 4. Obniżenie powinowactwa białek PBP do antybiotyków β-laktamowych. 5. Aktywny eksport ampicyliny przez białka należące do systemu efflux. 6. Ograniczenie przepuszczalności osłon komórkowych. 7. Podsumowanie

Abstract: β-lactam antibiotics are regularly used in medicine to control bacterial infections. However the overuse of these compounds in many human activities has led to dissemination of resistance determinants among pathogenic strains. Several mechanisms underlining β-lactam resistance, e.g. enzymatic inactivation, PBP modification, active efflux, and finally the reduction of cell wall permeability have been identified. Understanding of such mechanisms is the first step to overcome the resistance. Ampicillin was one of the first broad-spectrum amino penicillins introduced to therapy. Nowadays, five decades after the introduction of the antibiotic, ampicillin-resistant microbes are isolated all over the world. Current knowledge about the mechanisms involved in ampicillin resistance is presented in this review.

1. Introduction. 2. Ampicillin mode of action. 3. Inactivation of ampicillin by β-lactamases. 4. Changes in the affinity of PBP to β-lactams. 5. Efflux system-mediated resistance to ampicillin. 6. Reduction in cell envelope permeability. 7. Conclusions