Nowoczesne metody zwalczania biofilmu bakteryjnego

Novel methods of bacterial biofilm elimination
M. Maciejewska, M. Bauer, M. Dawgul

1. Wstęp. 2. Etapy powstawania biofilmu, a oporność na antybiotyki. 3. Strategie zapobiegania tworzenia się biofilmu. 3.1. Celowanie w początkową fazę rozwoju biofilmu. 3.1.1. Związki niskocząsteczkowe (Small Molecules). 3.1.2. Ingerencja w quorum sensing. 3.1.3. Przeciwciała. 3.1.4. Biofilm drobnoustrojów niepatogennych. 3.2. Modyfikacja biomateriałów w celu zwiększenia ich odporności na adhezję drobnoustrojów. 3.2.1. Materiały antyadhezyjne. 3.2.2. Powłoki bakteriobójcze/bakteriostatyczne. 4. Metody eradykacji biofilmu. 4.1. Fizyczne metody eradykacji biofilmu. 4.2. Biologiczne metody eradykacji biofilmu. 4.3. Chemiczne metody eradykacji biofilmu. 5. Peptydy przeciwdrobnoustrojowe. 6. Podsumowanie

Abstract: Bacterial biofilm is defined as a sessile, tridimensional microbial community composed of bacteria immersed in a polysaccharide matrix. The structures can grow on human tissues or medical devices resulting in biofilm related infections, which are very often impossible to treat with the commonly used antibiotics. Due to their resistance to the conventional antimicrobial therapy, efficient methods of treatment as well as prophylaxis need to be developed.
Biofilm formation can be reduced by inhibiting the process of adhesion and by interfering with quorum sensing system. Very promising is also the application of appropriate antibodies or use of non-pathogenic bacterial strains. Another approach focuses on the surface modifications in order to obtain the resistance to microbial colonization.
Disruption of mature structures can be achieved by several physical, chemical and biological methods. The novel approaches, which are currently being under intensive investigation, include: phage therapy, matrix targeting enzymes, photodynamic therapy and antimicrobial peptides. The above-mentioned strategies are described in the presented work with a special focus on antimicrobial peptides as the potential tool for prophylaxis as well as elimination of mature biofilms.

1. Introduction. 2. Stages of biofilm formation and the resistance to antibiotics. 3. Strategies of prevention of biofilm formation. 3.1. Targeting the initial phase of biofilm formation. 3.1.1. Small Molecules. 3.1.2. Interference in quorum sensing. 3.1.3. Antibodies. 3.1.4. Biofilm of non-pathogenic microorganisms. 3.2. Modification of biomaterials for increased resistance to microbial adhesion. 3.2.1. Anti-adhesive materials. 3.2.2. Bacteriostatic/bactericidal coatings. 4. Methods for biofilm eradication. 4.1. Physical methods for biofilm eradication. 4.2. Biological methods for biofilm eradication. 4.3. Chemical methods for biofilm eradication. 5. Antimicrobial peptides. 6. Conclusions