Browsing tag: eradykacja

Polio – zagadkowy wirus

Polio – a mysterious virus
Ł. Kuryk, M. Wieczorek, B. Litwińska

1. Wstęp. 2. Rys historyczny. 3. Budowa. 3.1. Genom. 3.2. Kapsyd. 4. Namnażanie wirusa polio. 4.1. Wniknięcie do komórki. 4.2. Synteza białek wirusowych. 4.3. Replikacja RNA. 5. Przebieg zakażenia wirusem polio. 6. Neurowirulencja. 7. Tropizm tkankowy wirusa polio. 8. Szczepionki przeciwko wirusowi polio. 9. Program eradykacji poliomyelitis. 10. Podsumowanie

Abstract: Poliovirus is a very small virus; single stranded RNA of positive polarity constitutes its genetic material. It belongs to the Picornaviridae family and may cause the development of poliomyelitis (viral inflammation of the anterior horn of the spinal cord). At the beginning of the twentieth century, the epidemics of polio were very frequent and this fact caused an increased interest in this virus. At present, there are two types of polio virus vaccines: OPV (oral polio vaccine), which contains three serotypes of live attenuated virus and inactivated vaccine IPV (inactivated polio vaccine) containing inactive virus particles. In 1988, the World Health Organization (WHO) introduced the program of global eradication of wild-type polio virus around the world (Global Polio Eradication Initiative). The outbreaks of wild-type polio still occur in Asia and Africa. Possibility of reversion of vaccine strains of polio virus to wild type carries the fear of re-transmission of the pathogen. It is the most intensively studied enterovirus, but still remains a puzzle.

1. Introduction. 2. Historical background. 3. Structure. 3.1. Genome. 3.2. Capsid. 4. Cellular life cycle of poliovirus. 4.1. Cell entry. 4.2. Synthesis of viral proteins. 4.3. RNA Replication. 5. Poliovirus pathogenesis. 6. Neurovirulence. 7. Poliovirus tissue tropism. 8. Vaccines against poliovirus. 9. The polio eradication initiative. 10. Summary

Działalność ruchu antyszczepionkowego, rola środków masowego komunikowania oraz wpływ poglądów religijnych na postawę wobec szczepień ochronnych

The activity of antivaccine movement, role of the mass media and influence of religious beliefs on the attitude towards immunization
A. K. Marchewka, A. Majewska, G. Młynarczyk

1. Wstęp. 2. Działalność ruchu antyszczepionkowego. 3. Rola środków masowego komunikowania na postawę wobec szczepień ochronnych. 4. Wpływ poglądów religijnych na postawę wobec szczepień ochronnych. 5. Podsumowanie

Abstract: Vaccines have accompanied humans for centuries. On the one hand vaccinology development resulted in growing popularity of infectious diseases prophylaxis, on the other vaccine refusal attitudes have been also noted. Religious or world-view reasons are given by vaccine opponents as an explanation to why they refuse immunization. They mention that obligatory immunization constrains liberty and freedom. They try to convince that vaccines or their components have a noxious effect or they overrate the significance of a natural exposure to pathogens. Despite the fact that smallpox has been eradicated and most of the infectious diseases incidence has dropped, resistance towards vaccination does not decline. Moreover, opposition is getting more and more commonplace. Mass media effectively helps propagate antivaccination idea. The Internet provides its users with a wealth information, both reliable with scientific background and the biased one. What is worrying is the fact that growing number of parents look for information on health related topics on the Internet. Selection of methods and parents’ gullible way of thinking lead to increased likelihood of these parents to believe in falsified and unreliable data. As a result, erroneous perception of the infectious diseases and antivaccination attitudes cause hazardous behaviors, such as so-called a pox-parties, which are previously planned exposures to a certain pathogen. Also celebrities take part in spreading out antivaccinationopinions. Nowadays, society tends to perceive celebrities as role-models and often obey them blindly.

1. Introduction. 2. Activity of antivaccine movement. 3. Role of the mass media on the attitude towards immunization. 4. Influence of religious beliefs on the attitude towards immunization. 5. Summary