Browsing tag: grzybice

Charakterystyka grzybów z rodzaju Malassezia. I. Aspekty mikrobiologiczne i immunologiczne

Characterization of fungi of the Malassezia genus. I. Microbiological and immunological aspects
T. Jagielski, E. Rup, A. B. Macura, J. Bielecki

1. Wprowadzenie. 2..Taksonomia i klasyfikacja grzybów z rodzaju Malassezia. 3. Mikrobiologia grzybów z rodzaju Malassezia. 3.1. Charakterystyka ogólna. 3.2. Metabolizm. 3.3. Aktywność enzymatyczna. 4. Interakcje grzybów Malassezia sp. z  innymi mikroorganizmami. 5. Interakcje grzybów Malassezia sp. z układem immunologicznym. 5.1. Serologia i budowa antygenowa. 5.2. Interakcje z układem dopełniacza. 5.3. Wpływ grzybów Malassezia sp. na różne populacje komórek w skórze. 6. Podsumowanie

Abstract: The yeasts of the Malassezia genus, first described over a century ago, belong to the physiological microflora of the human skin. However, they may occasionally act as opportunistic pathogens resulting in different dermatological pathologies, of which pityriasis versicolor is most frequently diagnosed. Two principle features of the genus Malassezia are distinctive morphology and requirement for external lipid source for growth. To date, the genus accommodates 14 species, all but one being lipid-dependent species. The very recently completed sequencing of the M. globosa genome disclosed the presence of multiple secreted lipases to help the yeasts to utilize cutaneous lipids. Very little is known about interactions between Malassezia organisms and the human host. It is clear however that Malassezia fungi display two phenotypes within the skin, one – immunostimulatory, and the other immunosuppressive, which are responsible for commensal and pathogenic behavior of the fungi, respectively.
This article provides a concise and up-to-date description of the Malassezia genus, with particular attention to the microbiology of the fungi and their interactions with the immune system of the human host.

1. Introduction. 2. Taxonomy and classification of Malassezia fungi. 3. Microbiology of Malassezia fungi. 3.1. General characteristics. 3.2. Metabolism. 3.3. Enzymatic activity. 4. Interactions of Malassezia fungi with oher microorganisms. 5. Interactions of Malassezia fungi with the immune system. 5.1. Serology and antigenic structure. 5.2. Interactions with the complement system.
5.3. Influence of Malassezia fungi on different cel populations within the skin. 6. Conclusions

Charakterystyka grzybów z rodzaju Malassezia. II. Aspekty kliniczne

Characterization of fungi of the Malassezia genus. II. Clinical aspects
E. Rup, T. Jagielski, A. Macura, J. Bielecki

1. Występowanie i chorobotwórczość grzybów z rodzaju Malassezia. 1.1. Dystrybucja grzybów z rodzaju Malassezia. 1.2. Chorobotwórczość grzybów Malassezia sp. 1.2.1. Łupież pstry (Pityriasis versicolor, PV). 1.2.2. Zapalenie mieszków włosowych (Malassezia folliculitis). 1.2.3. Łojotokowe zapalenie skóry i łupież (Seborrhoeic dermatitis/Dandruff; SD/D). 1.2.4. Atopowe zapalenie skóry. 1.2.5. Łuszczyca. 2. Wrażliwość na leki grzybów z rodzaju Malassezia. 3. Przyszłość badań nad grzybami z rodzaju Malassezia 

Abstract: Lipophilic yeasts of the genus Malassezia have been associated with a number of diseases affecting human skin. Clinically, pityriasis versicolor is the most important, ranking the first among all cutaneous mycoses in human population worldwide. Malassezia fungi may also aggravate the symptoms of other skin disorders, such as seborrheic dermatitis or exacerbate the course of psoriasis and atopic dermatitis. This review briefly outlines the epidemiology, risk factors, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, and treatment of various skin diseases related to the Malassezia species.

1. Prevalence and pathogenicity of Malassezia fungi. 1.1. Distribution of Malassezia fungi. 1.2. Pathogenicity of Malassezia sp. 1.2.1. Pityriasis versicolor (PV). 1.2.2. Malassezia folliculitis. 1.2.3. Seborrhoeic dermatitis/Dandruff (SD/D). 1.2.4. Atopic dermatitits. 1.2.5. Psoriasis. 2. Drug susceptibility of Malassezia fungi. 3. Future of the research on Malassezia fungi

Candida auris – nowy patogen grzybiczy

Candida auris – emerging fungal pathogen
D. Grondalska, W. Kmieciak

1. Wprowadzenie. 2. Zakażenia Candida spp. 3. Nowy patogen grzybiczy – Candida auris. 3.1. Epidemiologia i chorobotwórczość. 3.2. Problemy identyfikacyjne. 3.3. Czynniki chorobotwórczości. 3.4. Lekooporność szczepów C. auris. 4. Działania prewencyjne. 5. Podsumowanie

Abstract: In recent years, the incoming information about the emergence of new superbacteria and superviruses has been causing growing anxiety. However, also fungi are with increasing frequency reported as the sources of intercontinental microbiological hazards. According to the latest reports, quickly spreading, multidrug-resistant and difficult to identify yeast Candida auris may soon become the center of attention for clinicians, laboratory diagnosticians and the groups of advisers on the hospital-acquired infections, also in Poland. Unfortunately, the methods employed in routine microbiological diagnostics in the Polish medical laboratories cannot reliably identify this dangerous species. It is, therefore, necessary to implement measures to develop this field.

1. Introduction. 2. Candida spp. infections. 3. New fungal pathogen – Candida auris. 3.1. Epidemiology and pathogenicity. 3.2. Difficulties with identification. 3.3. Virulence factors. 3.4. Drug resistance of C. auris. 4. Preventive actions. 5. Summary