Charakterystyka grzybów z rodzaju Malassezia. I. Aspekty mikrobiologiczne i immunologiczne

Characterization of fungi of the Malassezia genus. I. Microbiological and immunological aspects
T. Jagielski, E. Rup, A. B. Macura, J. Bielecki

1. Wprowadzenie. 2..Taksonomia i klasyfikacja grzybów z rodzaju Malassezia. 3. Mikrobiologia grzybów z rodzaju Malassezia. 3.1. Charakterystyka ogólna. 3.2. Metabolizm. 3.3. Aktywność enzymatyczna. 4. Interakcje grzybów Malassezia sp. z  innymi mikroorganizmami. 5. Interakcje grzybów Malassezia sp. z układem immunologicznym. 5.1. Serologia i budowa antygenowa. 5.2. Interakcje z układem dopełniacza. 5.3. Wpływ grzybów Malassezia sp. na różne populacje komórek w skórze. 6. Podsumowanie

Abstract: The yeasts of the Malassezia genus, first described over a century ago, belong to the physiological microflora of the human skin. However, they may occasionally act as opportunistic pathogens resulting in different dermatological pathologies, of which pityriasis versicolor is most frequently diagnosed. Two principle features of the genus Malassezia are distinctive morphology and requirement for external lipid source for growth. To date, the genus accommodates 14 species, all but one being lipid-dependent species. The very recently completed sequencing of the M. globosa genome disclosed the presence of multiple secreted lipases to help the yeasts to utilize cutaneous lipids. Very little is known about interactions between Malassezia organisms and the human host. It is clear however that Malassezia fungi display two phenotypes within the skin, one – immunostimulatory, and the other immunosuppressive, which are responsible for commensal and pathogenic behavior of the fungi, respectively.
This article provides a concise and up-to-date description of the Malassezia genus, with particular attention to the microbiology of the fungi and their interactions with the immune system of the human host.

1. Introduction. 2. Taxonomy and classification of Malassezia fungi. 3. Microbiology of Malassezia fungi. 3.1. General characteristics. 3.2. Metabolism. 3.3. Enzymatic activity. 4. Interactions of Malassezia fungi with oher microorganisms. 5. Interactions of Malassezia fungi with the immune system. 5.1. Serology and antigenic structure. 5.2. Interactions with the complement system.
5.3. Influence of Malassezia fungi on different cel populations within the skin. 6. Conclusions