Browsing tag: Staphylococcus pseudintermedius

Staphylococcus pseudintermedius – trudno rozpoznawalny patogen

Staphylococcus pseudintermedius – a pathogen difficult to identify
M. Kizerwetter-Świda, D. Chrobak-Chmiel, M. Rzewuska, M. Binek

1. Wstęp. 2. Grupa Staphylococcus intermedius (SIG, Staphylococcus intermedius group). 3. Występowanie S. pseudintermedius. 4. Potencjał zoonotyczny S. pseudintermedius. 5. Identyfikacja. 6. Typowanie genetyczne. 7. Wykrywanie oporności na meticylinę u szczepów S. pseudintermedius – metody fenotypowe. 8. Wykrywanie oporności na meticylinę u S. pseudintermedius – metody genotypowe. 9. S. pseudintermedius – oporność na antybiotyki i chemioterpautyki. 10. Podsumowanie

Abstract: Staphylococcus pseudintermedius has recently been described as a member of the Staphylococcus genus. Three closely related staphylococci (Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, Staphylococcus intermedius and Staphylococcus delphini) with very similar phenotypic characteristics form the S. intermedius group (SIG). In fact, majority of strains previously recognized as S. intermedius isolated from dogs were reclassified to the species S. pseudintermedius. Within the SIG, S. pseudintermedius represents the major pathogenic species and is involved in a wide variety of infections, mainly in dogs, but also in other animal species and humans. Recently, an increase has been observed in the frequency of infections caused by methicillin-resistant S. pseudintermedius (MSRP) in animals, especially in dogs and humans. The identification of S. pseudintermedius in veterinary laboratories is usually not difficult, however, in laboratories working with materials collected from people the risk of misidentification is high. Moreover, the demonstration of the mecA gene may be a challenge in diagnostic laboratories. The objective of this review is to summarize the current knowledge of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, including MRSP, with the emphasis on taxonomy, occurrence and diagnostics. Furthermore, this review present also the genetic basis of antimicrobial resistance in S. pseudintermedius.

1. Introduction. 2. Staphylococcus intermedius group (SIG) 3. The occurrence of S. pseudintermedius. 4. Zoonotic potential of S. pseudintermedius. 5. Identification. 6. Genetic typing. 7. Detection of methicillin resistance in S. pseudintermedius – phenotypic methods. 8. Detection of methicillin resistance in S. pseudintermedius – genotypic methods. 9. S. pseudintermedius – resistance to antimicrobials. 10. Summary

Cytolizyny – czynniki zjadliwości Staphylococcus intermedius i Staphylococcus pseudintermedius

Cytolysins – virulence factors of Staphylococcus intermedius and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius
W. Kmieciak, E. M. Szewczyk

1. Wprowadzenie. 2. Taksonomia. 3. Chorobotwórczość S. intermedius i S. pseudintermedius. 4. Cytolizyny gronkowców. 4.1. Hemolizyna α. 4.2. Hemolizyna β. 4.3. Hemolizyna δ. 4.4. Hemoliza synergistyczna. 4.5. Hemolizyna γ. 4.6. Leukocydyny. 5. Podsumowanie

Abstract: Bacteria in the Staphylococcus genus are one of the most abundant in the human microbiome. In addition to S. aureus, coagulase-positive group includes other species, such as isolated from animals S. intermedius and S. pseudintermedius. Recently, these two species have been also isolated from clinical materials from humans with increasing frequency. Apart from wound infections caused by animal bites, S. intermedius and S. pseudintermedius are also an etiological agent of endocarditis, central nervous system infections or bacteremia. Both species produce cytolysins: hemolysins α, β, δ, γ and leukocidins which have the ability to damage not only erythrocytes, but also many eukaryotic cells. Thus, these toxins seem to be very important virulence factors. In the light of the recent studies indicating participation of cytolysins in inflammatory processes and formation of biofilms, toxins produced by these species seem to be of particular importance in the pathogenesis of infections.

1. Introduction. 2. Taxonomy. 3. Pathogenicity of S. intermedius and S. pseudintermedius. 4. Staphylococcal cytolysins. 4.1. Hemolysin α. 4.2. Hemolysin β. 4.3. Hemolysin δ. 4.4. Synergistic hemolysis. 4.5. Hemolysin γ. 4.6. Leukocodins. 5. Summary