Microbiological sources of colorants in food technology
I. Stolarzewicz, A. Kapturowska, E. Białecka-Florjańczyk

1. Wstęp. 2. Barwniki syntetyczne. 3. Barwniki naturalne. 3.1. Barwniki identyczne z naturalnymi otrzymywane na drodze syntezy chemicznej. 4. Mikrobiologiczna produkcja barwników. 4.1. Grzyby jako potencjalne źródło barwników w technologii żywności. 4.2. Mikroalgi w produkcji barwników. 4.3. Bakterie i drożdże jako producenci związków o charakterze barwników. 5. Podsumowanie

Abstract: Recent years have brought intensive discussions concerning harmful inFuence of synthetic colorants used in food industry. It has focused the interest of both the food producers and the consumers on natural dyes. The aim of this review is to present novel methods of biosynthesis of natural colorants. The scope of the paper is not limited to those substances which are currently in use, but includes also some other compounds potentially useful in such applications are described. New sources of food colorants has been discovered among such organisms as algae (Dunaliella producing β-carotene), fungi (poliketides pigments), yeast (Ashbya gossypii producing riboFavin), bacteria. The highest expectations are connected with carotenoids, which are currently being intensively investigated. Their structural diversity opens up a wide range of potential new colorants. The most important method of their modification is cloning of crt genes and their expression in E. coli cells.

1. Introduction. 2. Synthetic colorants. 3. Natural colorants. 3.1. Nature-identical colorants produced by chemical synthesis. 4. Microbiological production of colorants. 4.1. Fungi as a potential source of colorants in food technology. 4.2. Microalgaes in the production of colorants. 4.3. Bacteria and yeast as producers of coloring compounds. 5. Conclusion