Zakażenia okołoporodowe o etiologii Streptococcus agalactiae

Perinatal infections caused by Streptococcus agalactiae
M. Bigos, M. Łysakowska, M. Wasiela
1. Wstęp. 2. Czynniki zjadliwości S. agalactiae. 3. Epidemiologia zakażeń S. agalactiae. 4. Chorobotwórczość S. agalactiae. 5. Lekowrażliwość szczepów S. agalactiae. 6. Diagnostyka nosicielstwa GBS. 7. Okołoporodowa profilaktyka antybiotykowa. 8. Immunoprofilaktyka zakażeń GBS. 9. Uwagi końcowe
Abstract: Streptococcus agalactiae are Gram-positive β-haemolytic bacteria belonging to group B streptococci (GBS), according to Rebecca Lancefield’s classification. They are commensals that colonize the distal parts of gastrointestinal, urinary, and genital tracts of healthy people. An increasing level of the pregnant women colonization by GBS was noted in the last decade. This raises a really high concern over the risk of severe perinatal infections among newborns since GBS are easily transmitted from mother being a S. agalactiae carrier to her child during delivery. Pneumonia, meningitis, bacteraemia, and sepsis are the most serious consequences of GBS infections in newborns. Moreover, the mortality rate among neonates infected with S. agalactiae reaches 20%. The microbiological screening for the GBS carriage among women being in 35–37 weeks of pregnancy are obligatory in Poland, starting from April, the 8 th, 2011. This paper is a review of current knowledge about GBS pathogenicity and epidemiology. The issues concerning the diagnostics of S. agalactiae carriage among pregnant women and the perinatal antibiotic prophylaxis are also presented.
1. Introduction. 2. S. agalactiae virulence factors. 3. Epidemiology of S. agalactiae infections. 4. Pathogenicity of S. agalactiae. 5. Drug susceptibility of S. agalactiae strains. 6. Diagnostics of GBS carriage. 7. Perinatal antibiotic prophylaxis. 8. Immunoprophylaxis of GBS infections. 9. Finald remarks