Human Microbiome Project – mikroflora jelit oraz jej wpływ na fizjologię i zdrowie człowieka

Human Microbiome Project – influence of gut microbiota on human physiology and health
J. Olszewska, E. K. Jagusztyn-Krynicka

1. Wstęp. 2. HMP – ogólna charakterystyka. 3. Mikroflora jelit. 3.1. Różnorodność taksonomiczna mikroflory jelit człowieka. 3.2. „Core microbiome” jelit. 3.3. Zmiany mikroflory jelit w zależności od wieku. 3.4. Wpływ diety i genotypu gospodarza na różnorodność mikroflory jelit. 3.5. Wybrane funkcje mikroflory jelit. 3.6. Mikroflora jelit człowieka a choroby. 3.6.1. Nowotwory. 3.6.2. Otyłość. 4. Podsumowanie

Abstract: The HMP (Human Microbiome Project) is one of several international projects which use metagenomic analysis to study human health. The HMP is a logical conceptual and experimental extension of Human Genome Project. The first part of the review presents general characteristic of the project, its goals and implementation phases. The gastrointestinal tract microbiota is extremely dense and diverse. Microbiota genes encode many biochemical pathways that humans have not evolved. Gut microbiota composition is ins are associated with many diseases. This review summarizes the latest research concerning the association of gut microbial ecology with the mechanisms by which microbes in the gut may mediate host physiology and metabolism in the context of obesity and cancer.

1. Introduction. 2. HMP – general characteristic. 3. Gut microbiota. 3.1. Microbial diversity of the human gut microbiota. 3.2. Gastrointestinal tract core microbiome. 3.3. Intestinal microbiota composition over human life. 3.4. Influence of diet and human genotype on gut microbiota 3.5. Selected activities of gut microbiota 3.6. Gut microbiota and diseases. 3.6.1. Cancer. 3.6.2. Obesity. 4. Summary