Browsing tag: nowotwory

Human Microbiome Project – mikroflora jelit oraz jej wpływ na fizjologię i zdrowie człowieka

Human Microbiome Project – influence of gut microbiota on human physiology and health
J. Olszewska, E. K. Jagusztyn-Krynicka

1. Wstęp. 2. HMP – ogólna charakterystyka. 3. Mikroflora jelit. 3.1. Różnorodność taksonomiczna mikroflory jelit człowieka. 3.2. „Core microbiome” jelit. 3.3. Zmiany mikroflory jelit w zależności od wieku. 3.4. Wpływ diety i genotypu gospodarza na różnorodność mikroflory jelit. 3.5. Wybrane funkcje mikroflory jelit. 3.6. Mikroflora jelit człowieka a choroby. 3.6.1. Nowotwory. 3.6.2. Otyłość. 4. Podsumowanie

Abstract: The HMP (Human Microbiome Project) is one of several international projects which use metagenomic analysis to study human health. The HMP is a logical conceptual and experimental extension of Human Genome Project. The first part of the review presents general characteristic of the project, its goals and implementation phases. The gastrointestinal tract microbiota is extremely dense and diverse. Microbiota genes encode many biochemical pathways that humans have not evolved. Gut microbiota composition is ins are associated with many diseases. This review summarizes the latest research concerning the association of gut microbial ecology with the mechanisms by which microbes in the gut may mediate host physiology and metabolism in the context of obesity and cancer.

1. Introduction. 2. HMP – general characteristic. 3. Gut microbiota. 3.1. Microbial diversity of the human gut microbiota. 3.2. Gastrointestinal tract core microbiome. 3.3. Intestinal microbiota composition over human life. 3.4. Influence of diet and human genotype on gut microbiota 3.5. Selected activities of gut microbiota 3.6. Gut microbiota and diseases. 3.6.1. Cancer. 3.6.2. Obesity. 4. Summary


Characterization of Epstein-Barr virus proteins – their participation in latency and relation to oncogenesis
A. Żuk-Wasek

1. Wprowadzenie. 2. Perspektywa historyczna. 3. Budowa genomu. 4. Zakażenie pierwotne – mechanizmy wnikania wirionów i replikacji EBV. 5. Molekularne podstawy zakażenia latentnego EBV. 6. Białka fazy latentnej.  7. Reaktywacja zakażenia latentnego. 8. Wirusowe homologi białek komórkowych. 9. Właściwości onkogenne EBV. 10. Nowotwory powiązane z EBV. 11. Podsumowanie

Abstract: Although the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infects more than 90% of the human population, the infection can have a broad range of health consequences. The primary infection usually occurs during childhood, without any symptoms or with a mild illness. During adolescent infection mononucleosis occurs in around 50% of individuals. This most extensively studied gammaherpesvirus is also associated with various human malignancies such as Hodgkin`s and non-Hodgkin`s lymphomas, Burkitt`s lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, AIDS-related lymphoproliferative disorders and X-linked lymphoproliferative disorder (Duncan`s disease). All these tumors are associated with the EBV latency cycle. Latently infected lymphocytes express the six nuclear antigens (EBNA-1, -2, -3A, -3B, -3C and -LP), three latent membrane proteins (LMP-1, -2A and -2B) and small, non-polyadenylated RNAs (EBER-1 and EBER-2). EBV can transform and immortalise resting B-cells in cultures, which suggests that it may have oncogenic specificity. EBV has broad spectrum of proteins, which mimic cellular proteins regulating cell cycle (BCRF-1, BDLF-2, BARF-1 and BHRF-1). These proteins interact with or exhibit homology to a wide variety of antiapoptotic molecules, cytokines and signal transducers, hence promoting EBV infection, immortalization and transformation.

1. Introduction. 2. Historical perspectives. 3. Genome structure. 4. Primary infection-mechanisms of virion invasion and EBV replication. 5. Molecular aspects of latent EBV infection. 6. Latent proteins. 7. Reactivation from latency. 8. Viral homologues of cellular proteins. 9. Oncogenic properties of EBV. 10. Cancers connected with EBV. 11. Summary