Mikrobiologiczna utylizacja celulozy

Microbial cellulose utilization
K. Poszytek

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1. Wprowadzenie. 2. Charakterystyka celulozy. 3. Mikroorganizmy celulolityczne. 4. Enzymy celulolityczne. 4.1. Podział systemów celulolitycznych. 4.2. Zasady funkcjonowania wolnych i skompleksowanych enzymów celulolitycznych. 4.3. Biologia molekularna oraz inżynieria genetyczna celulaz. 5. Ekologiczny i  praktyczny aspekt utylizacji celulozy. 6. Podsumowanie

Abstract: Lignocellulosic biomass, consisting of lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose, can be utilized as a substrate in the production of biofuels. Before application, lignocellulosic material requires preliminary treatment. Biological pretreatment, which can be an alternative to the physical and chemical methods, is based on the activity of microorganisms, mainly bacteria and fungi. They produce cellulolytic enzymes, cellulases, which can effectively degrade lignocellulosic biomass and other materials containing cellulose. At least three major groups of cellulases are involved in the hydrolysis process: endoglucanases, exoglucanases and β-glucosidases. Various types of cellulases exist in a free form or as complexes, known as cellulosomes. In order to increase the activity, cellulolytic enzymes can be modified by means of genetic engineering. The final results are intended to increase the efficiency of hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass and thus the process of biochemical changes in the context of biofuel production.

1. Introduction. 2. Characteristics of cellulose. 3. Cellulolytic microorganisms. 4. Cellulolytic enzymes. 4.1. Classification of cellulolytic enzymes. 4.2. Operating principles of free and complexed cellulolytic enzymes. 4.3. Molecular biology and genetic engineering of cellulases. 5. Ecological and practical aspects of cellulose utilization. 6. Summary