Mikroorganizmy w bioaugmentacji zanieczyszczonych środowisk

Microorganisms in bioaugmentation of polluted environments
A. Mrozik

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1. Wprowadzenie. 2. Mikroorganizmy w bioaugmentacji. 2.1. Pojedyncze szczepy. 2.2. Konsorcja mikroorganizmów. 2.3. Mikroorganizmy modyfikowane genetycznie. 3. Sposoby dostarczania mikroorganizmów do środowiska. 4. Czynniki ograniczające bioaugmentację. 5. Podsumowanie

Abstract: Bioaugmentation is defined as a technique for improving the degradative capacity of contaminated soil and water by adding selected strains or consortia of microorganisms. In the treatment of environmental pollution by microorganisms, three approaches can be distinguished: autochthonous bioaugmentation, in which microorganisms isolated from contaminated site as an enriched culture are reinjected to the original environment; allochthonous bioaugmentation (bioenrichment), in which seeding material is isolated from another place and gene bioaugmentation, in which genetically engineered microorganisms equipped with genes encoding proteins related to some desired function are introduced into polluted site. In the selection of proper culture for biougmentation, the following features of microorganism should be taken into consideration: fast growth, ease of culivation, capacity to withstand high concentration of contaminants and the ability to survive in a wide range of environmental conditions. The enhancement of bioaugmentation may be also achieved by delivering microorganisms on various carriers or by the use of activated soil. The efficiency of bioaugmentation is determined by abiotic and biotic factors. The first include chemical structure of contaminants, their concentration and bioavailability as well as fluctuations or extremes in temperature, pH and nutrients level. Among biotic factors, the most important are the interactions between autochthonous and added microorganisms such a competition, predation and bacteriophages. Numerous studies have demonstrated that bioaugmentation is a promising technology in remediation of soil, water and sediments polluted with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, nitrophenols, polychlorinated biphenyls, chlorophenols, crude oil, diesel oil and several pesticides.

Introduction. 2. Microorganisms in bioaugmentation. 2.1. Single strains. 2.2. Consortia of microorganisms. 2.3. Genetically engineered microorganisms. 3. Methods for delivering microorganisms into environment. 4. Factors limiting bioaugmentation. 5. Summary