Mikrosporydia: oportunistyczne patogeny ludzi

Microsporidia – opportunistic pathogens of humans
M. Bednarska

1. Wstęp. 2. Pozycja systematyczna mikrosporydiów. 3. Charakterystyka spory. 4. Cykl rozwojowy mikrosporydiów. 5. Charakterystyka gatunków wykrywanych u ludzi. 5.1. Enterocytozoon bieneusi. 5.2. Encephalitozoon spp. 5.3. inne patogenne gatunki. 6. Chorobotwórczość. 7. Epidemiologia. 8. Mikrosporydioza w Polsce. 9. Drogi zarażenia i różnorodność genetyczna. 10.  Diagnostyka mikrosporydiozy. 11. Leczenie. 12. Podsumowanie

Abstract: Microsporidia are small, unicellular, and obligatory intracellular parasites of vertebrates and invertebrates. Phylogenetic analysis has placed Microsporidia with in the Fungi. They have very unusual organelles such as single polar tube, polaroplast and anchoring disc. The following genera have been associated with human infections: Enterocytozoon, Encephalitozoon, Pleistophora, Trachipleistophora, Anncaliia, Vittaforma, Brachiola, Nosema and Microsporidium. These parasites are etiological agents of diarrhea and disseminated systemic microsporidiosis in immunedeficient or immunecompetent individuals: AIDS patients, organ transplant recipients, travelers, contact lens wearers, children and elderly people. Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Encephalitozoon intestinalis are the most common causes of human infections. Microsporidian spores appear to be relatively resistant to environmental conditions, and species of microsporidia infecting humans have been identified in water sources and in free-ranging, domestic or farm animals, with a threat for waterborne, foodborne and zoonotic transmissions. Several methods are available for detection and species differentiation of microsporidia. Microscopy techniques allow the diagnosis of microsporidiosis but for genus and species determination the antigen-based and molecular methods must be used. The most effective drugs for treating microsporidiosis in humans include albendazole and fumagillin. The highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) reduces the prevalence of intestinal microsporidiosis in HIV-infected persons. Future studies shall focus on risk factors predisposing to microsporidiosis.

1. Introduction. 2. Taxonomy. 3. The characteristics of spores. 4. The life cycle. 5. Species infecting humans. 5.1. Enterocytozoon bieneusi. 5.2. Encephalitozoon spp. 5.3. Other pathogenic species. 6. Pathogenicity. 7. Epidemiology. 8. Microsporidiosis in Poland. 9. Transmission routes and genetic diversity. 10. Diagnostic methods. 11. Treatment. 12. Summary